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Full text of "Indians at work"

15 
1MAX. 



INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




i A NEWS SHEET FOR. INDIANS 

i AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

^- hsd/ % OFFICE- OF INDIAN' AFFAIRS • 

WASHINGTON, P- Co 



NOTICE 

One issue of INDUES AT WORK has had to be omitted, be- 
cause of delays due to the moving of the Indian Office into the 
New Interior Building. This will be the only issue to appear in 
May. The next issue will be June 1. 




INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF MAY 1937 

Volume IV Number 18-19 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Washington Visitors 7 

The Pine Ridge Reservation Land 

Program W. . Roberts 8 

Reorganization News 11 

Fighting The Enemy Will iam H. Zeh 13 

Sherman Students Praised For Work 

In Fire Last Fall ^. ... 16 

The Papago Council 17 

Third Group Of Chief Clerks Meets 19 

Wade Crawford, Klamath Superintendent, 

Separated From Indian Service 21 

Indian Educat ion Throughout The Years. .Miguel H. Trujillo 24 

" School Days In San Juan" 31 

Health Conference In Washingtpn Dr. J. G-. Townsend 31 

Navajo Tribal Council Reorganizes 32 

Owens Valley Land Exchange Bill 

Becomes Law 34 

Politics At Solomon Mabel Nigh Nylen 35 

Archaeological Investigation Of The 

Northwest Company' s Post Ralph D. Brown 38 

Education For The Florida. Seminoles . . F. J. Scott 45 

National Folk Festival To Be Held 

In Chicago 46 

Cover Design 46 

Last Year - A Tragic Ending; This 

Year - Hope M. R. Wood 47 

Aged Arapaho Leader Participates In 

I.E.cV,7. Celebration 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 



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■VOLVML IV< -MAY 1937- -NUM6LR. 18-19 

I have "been reading a book so filled with astonishment, 
with, delight, with wisdom and with innocence, that I feel I must 
pass along a few of its words to " Indians At Tfork ." 

When were the following remarks made, to what government 
do they apply? 

"I have already indicated that the current method of 
selecting officials is wrong in principle. I have now to add that 
in the actual appointing of a man to office, no enqxiiry is made as 
to his real capability for the particular post to which he is al- 
located. All that is considered is his year of graduation, or his 
particular position on the examination lists. Or, again, instead 
of investigating his suitability for a certain position, regard is 
paid only to the number of years he has been engaged in the govern- 
ment service." 



These were Wang An Shin's remarks, addressed to the 
Emperor of China in 1058 A. D. 

"The statement of Mencius is apropos, viz.. 'The laws do 
not administer themselves automatically.' To my mind, the great- 
est need of the times is the securing of capable officials. A 
proper method should he devised wherehy such men can he trained, 
maintained, selected and appointed. I am hound to admit that (due 
to the dearth of capable officials) the present state of affairs 
is of such a character that even though Your Majesty should desire 
to reform the administration it would he practically impossible for 
him to do so . " 

The gist of Wang An Shih's recommendation was as follows: 
that opportunity to study practical matters of government and of 
state should he extended to all; that probationary appointments in 
the civil service should he made accessible to the many, not the 
few; that probation should be long-extended, and should be graduated 
toward final appointment ; that the uncountable Rules and Regulations 
then paralysing government, ms,de necessary by the mediocrity of the 
civil service, should be "scrapped"; that failure to demonstrate 
positive productive ability during probation should be the mandatory 
reason for summary and irrevocable dismissal from government service; 
and that the finding of men, the oversight of probation and the 
ultimate selections for executive positions, should be committed as 
an extra duty to those men already in public service who had proved 
their administrative competence. 

2 



As for the civil service examinations at that day being 
given for jobs at the Imperial Court, Wang An Shih simply refused 
to take them. But as he had succeeded "brilliantly as Chief Justice 
of a District Circuit, and as his "Memorial of a Myriad Words" had 
awakened a deep excitement in the Emperor's mind, a commission was 
sent out to physically capture Wang An Shih to give him a top job 
at the Capital. The commission was successful, after a devious 
pursuit. Soon thereafter Wang An Shih "became Prime Minister, and 
under his guidance the Emperor put into motion a "New Deal" for 
China. 

Some of this New Deal was as follows. There was an 
"ever-normal granaries" system. Based on it, tenancy and peonage 
were attacked through the setting-up of a State credit system which 
cut the interest rates to farmers in half. This reform was entitled 
the "Green Sprout Measure." The national finances were reconstructed 
on the principle that if volume of business could be increased, taxes 
could go down and still the government would have plenty of money. 
Accompanying the fiscal reform efforts was a complete re-making of 
the ancient system of conscription for local public service; payment 
of money for these services was substituted, and the necessary money 
was raised through local taxes levied upon the rich. 

Public works were set under way on the grand scale. They 
included land-reclamation and 'river conservancy', or watershed re- 
habilitation works; the survey and the economic classification of 
all lands; and the following interesting governmental scheme for im- 



provement of transport. In the centuries preceding Wang An Shin's 
premiership, transportation had heen a government monopoly. Hence 
"officials and their subordinates alike were engaged in the nefarious 
traffic of stealing, smuggling and selling." Wang An Shih abolished 
the government monopoly and induced universal competition by private 
carriers. "R. F. C." loans were supplied in return for guarantees 
of cheap and prompt deliveries. "Each of the competitors thus," 
he explained, "would keep a close watch on the other." That is, 
public and private transportation would discipline one another. The 
event bore out his prediction, government transport shot upward in 
efficiency, prices of transported goods shot down and everybody was 
gratified. This item was but one of many in an interstate commerce 
regulation program. 

Now, China was, as it later remained, politically democratic 
under the Emperor, but with a great deal of monopoly of land and, 
as mentioned above, with a private credit system which held the en- 
tire peasant population in its coils. Fifty per cent per annum was 
a usual interest rate. And as mentioned above, Wang An Shih had 
set up a State rural credit, halving the interest rate to begin with, 
and had taxed the rich to get the money for local public services - 
services previously exacted at no pay from the poor. So, naturally, 
the rich struck back at Wang An Shih, and helping them were the civil 
servants who had been produced by that system of appointment and 
promotion which Wang An Shih had denounced in his memorial to the 
Emperor. 



There came a great drought, such as we in America know 
in these latter days. "Cheng Hsieh" (enemy of Wang An Shih, and 
agent of the rich and. of the bureaucracy) "observed the poor refugees 
from the north-east, traveling along the roads in the driving wind, 
with the heavens darkened by storms of dust, supporting their aged 
parents, and leading their young children. The roads were blocked 
by their numbers. He noted their sickness, their weakness and 
their evident sorrow and pain. Some he saw were practically naked, 
some had only leaves, or seeds, or the bark of trees for their food." 

Cheng Hsieh was an artist in words, and he wrote a vivid 
description and delivered it "secretly" to the Emperor. . And he ex- 
plained that the dust storm was not a result of that soil-erosion 
process which Wang An Shih was fighting through his public works, 
but: " The drought is caused by Wang A n Shih . If you dismiss him, 
and rain does not come within ten days afterwards, you may cut off 
my head outside the Wsuan Te Gate." 

The Emperor, "sighing deeply, eventually put the memorial 
up his sleeve, and that night he could not sleep, and arising very 
early he issued orders that eighteen different matters connected 
with the government were to be attended to immediately." These 
eighteen ma,tters were the repeal, that very day, of China's entire 
New Deal. "And on that very day heavy rain felll" And Wang An Shih 
resigned forthwith. 



But the Eraperor had got his rain; he loved and trusted 
Wang An Shih; and immediately he reversed himself back to progressivism, 
handed the wily and picturesque lobbyist Cheng Hsieh over to the 
criminal authorities, re-appointed Wang An Shih, and re-enacted the 
New Deal for China. 

There's no space for more about Wang An Shih or about his 
epoch so like our own yet so remote from our own. In somewhat 
earlier Chinese days, public officials who dressed incorrectly were 
banished, those who drank alcohol were beheaded. Wang An Shih 
viewed this ancient custom with approval. "It is better that the 
few should suffer, rather than that the many should be corrupted." 
The China of Wang An Shih was already more than three thousand years 
old, and perhaps was the most civilized, perhaps the most simple- 
hearted of the nations that have ever been. Within that far-away 
social context this great statesman found situation after situation, 
problem after problem, and solution after solution, so close to our 
own present life, that when I was reading the book aloud to a friend 
the other evening he insisted it must be make-believe fiction. But 
it is not. The volume is called "Wang An Shih, a Chinese Statesman 
and Educationalist of the Sung Dynasty", and is written by H. R. 
Williamson, M. A., D. Lit., and published, 1935, by Arthur Probsthain, 
London; the first of three volumes to be published on Wang An Shih. 

Wang An Shih's was a "successful" life. His New Deal pre- 
vailed. Age and sickness came to him as to all, and "he objected to 



receiving the heavy emoluments attached to his position. He as- 
sured the Emperor that it would be easy to find someone to fill his 
post satisfactorily." His reformed civil service system was now 
producing its capable men. After many appeals the Emperor released 
him, and Wang An Shih retired to a monastery for the balance of his 
years. He wrote, among other things, fifty volumes of poetry and 
sixteen volumes of political essays. He died in 1086, aged sixty- 
five. Thereafter, the northern barbarians overran and conquered 
China. 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

************** 
WASHINGTON VISITORS 



Superintendents visiting the Washington Office recently have in- 
cluded: W. 0. Roberts of Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Claude R. Whitlock of 
Rosecud, South Dakota.; Superintendent Harold W. Foght of the Eastern Cherokee 
Agency in North Carolina and Dr. Sophie D. Aberle, Superintendent of the 
United Pueblos Agency, New Mexico; also Ralph D. Fredenburg, Superintendent 
of the Keshena Agency, Wisconsin. 

Among others who have recently visited the Washington Office have 
been: Mr. Joe Jennings, Superintendent of Indian Schools in North and South 
Dakota and Nebraska, who came on reorganization matters and summer schools; 
Mr. Fuhrman A. Asbury, Extension Agent from Pine Ridge Agency; Mr. Carl B. 
Aamodt, Extension Agent from Rosebud; Mr. Jarrett Blythe, Chairman of the 
Eastern Cherokee Tribal Council; Walter C. Martin, Special Officer At Large. 

Members of the Menominee delegation now in Washington are: Neil 
Gauthier, James Frechette and Jerry Grignon. Several members of the Land 
Acquisition staff have come to the Washington Office for meetings: A. L. 
Hook, E. M. Johnston, George G. Wren, Clyde G. Sherman, Fred A. Baker and 
Mark W. Radcliffe. 



THE PINE RIDGE RESERVATION LAND PROGRAM 

By W. 0. Roberts, Superintendent 

Pine Ridge, South Dakota 




Plate I - Pine Ridge In 1936 . 

Black Area ; Land Owned Or Leased By Whites 
White : Area Used By Indians; Also (Largely) Wasteland. 

The story of the use of Indian lands during the past twenty-five 
years is not one quickly told. In the early years of the reservation the 
lands were stocked with Indian-owned cattle and horses. The records of the 
Pine Ridge Agency show that about 1910 there were more than 25,000 head of 
cattle belonging to the Indians and nearly that many horses. The abundant 
grass, together with wise planning and rigid administration by the early of- 
ficers of the reservation, brought about the development. 

High-Priced War Wheat And Lure of Quick Profit Break Up Range 

The first serious break in the system undoubtedly was due to the 
war pressure. The panic of the times demanded that farmers sow more wheat. 



Therefore, the prairie lan^p of South Dakota "beckoned to the central states 
people to plow the land and reap the harvest. Indians caught the urge to 
sell their stock and convert it into cash. A frenzy to "develop" the country 
reached emotional proportions. It was held to toe a sin and a wrong to allow 
land to lie "idle." Farmers, "business men, the railroad companies and, to 
some extent, the Government itself toelieved in the principle of "land develop- 
ment." The idea was everywhere prevalent that the Indian should retain only 
a small amount of land, "what he could use", and sell the rest. 

Paralleling the theory of intensive use of land through "develop- 
ment", a system of leasing grew up. The pressure to sell Indian land plus 
the pressure to use intensively the rest of the land torought about farming 
and grazing leases. And the Indians themselves wanted immediate cash. Con- 
sequently the sale and the leasing of the lands was accelerated. 

Population Increases; Land Has Dwindled 

The Pine Ridge staff holds to the theory that while Indians have 
not learned to use land in the same sense that skilled whites have done, 
the procedure lies not in a restricted quantity of land for Indian use, tout 
a larger quantity. We toelieve that in proportion to the excess of grass ac- 
tually needed toy animals, there will toe a decrease in the amount of winter 
feeding and care. 

The economic condition of the Pine Ridge Indians is toy all odds the 
greatest protolem facing the Indians and the employed personnel. Without 
doutot, the land status of the Indians is worse protoatoly than it has toeen at 
any time since the agency was established. 

The population has toeen steadily increasing for the past twenty 
years. Infant mortality has toeen reduced and better health practices have 
led to an increase at the rate of between fifteen and twenty per thousand 
each year. 

Simultaneously with the increase of population, the assets of the 
Indians have toeen steadily reduced. Through the issuance of fee patents and 
sales, atoout two-fifths of the total reservation area has toeen sold into the 
hands of white people. The greater portion of the remainder, atoout seven- 
eighths of the usable land has been leased to white people. (See the map on 
page 8.) Indian cattle and horses have been reduce d almost to the vanishing 
noint. The Pine Ridge staff and Indians face the need for a drastic and 
definite program if the tide is to be reversed. 

Balanced Program of Live Stock And Gardens Sought 

To meet this situation, the Extension Division, with the advice of 
other employees and the Indians, set about a plan of reserving for Indian use 



certain areas believed to be to the best interests of the Indians. All the 
land shown in black: on Plate II was taken back into Indian use from land 
formerly leased to whites. It lies mostly along creeks where a large pro- 
portion of the Indians actually live. 

As a general rule the area reserved for Indian use surrounds their 
homes and will facilitate the opportunity for reestablishing the Indian-owned 
live stock. Furthermore, the absence of large herds of cattle which the leas- 
ing of land bring in, will make possible the better utilization of the gar- 
den olots along the small streams and springs. 

Our whole effort is toward better opportunity for self-support. 
Every venture which will add to individual families 1 food supply will be 
pressed during the coming year. Some of the Indians are interested in milk 
goats: we are trying to obtain these animals for such groups. Undoubtedly, 
the forage along the small streams, together with what the Indians may be 
able to raise, will offer fine opportunities for the success of this venture. 
Several areas offer opportunity through irrigation. In fact, seventeen 
dams are available for use beginning this spring. 




Plate II - Pine Ridge .In 1937 . 

Black Area : Land Turned Back Into Indian Use - 

Formerly Leased By Whites. 

Cross-hatched Area : Deeded Land. 

White Area : Land Which May Be Leased By Either White 

Or Indian Lessees; Also Wasteland. 



10 



Wise Land-Use Our Biggest Opportunity 

The biggest opportunity in the immediate future of the Pine Ridge 
Indians lies in wise land utilization. Unquestionably, the economic condi- 
tion of the Indians cannot be improved unless they themselves can be helped 
in the use of their own lands. 

This reservation program hinges on the active cooperation of all 
divisions of the jurisdiction. In some areas the school-teacher will assume 
its sponsorship. In communities where there are no schools the burden will 
be the heaviest on the Extension Division. All divisions will help in the 
planning. 

Grazing lands on the Pine Ridge Reservation bring in, when leased, 
approximately ten cents an acre a year; the farm lands slightly more. Dur- 
ing the past year about 30,000 head of white-owned cattle, 50,000 sheep 
and several thousand horses were cared for through the use of Indian-owned 
land. Certainly the reservation would bring more return to the Indians if ■ 
they owned the live stock. 

The process of recovery of leased lands for Indian use is not 
easy. We believe, however, that an intensive effort, directed through adult 
education, will bring about a changed point of view among the Indian people, 
and that those areas reserved for Indian use may rapidly increase. Surely, 
the outlook of the Pine Ridge Sioux is by no means hopeless if the assets 
of the tribe are used for the fullest benefit of the Indians. 



REORGANIZATION NEWS 

The constitution and by-laws for the Walker River Tribe, under the 
Carson jurisdiction in Nevada, was approved by the Secretary of the Interior 
on March 26. 

Recent charter election results are as follows: 

Yes No 

April 10 Yerington Paiute ( Carson) 36 6 

April 17 Fort Hall 325 1 Q1 

April 24 Fort Berthold • 407 118 



11 




A High Wind - Darkness - Danger. 
Three Men Lost Their Lives In 
This Fort Belknap Fire, 1936. 



Radio Fire Patrol At 
Blackfeet Agency In Montana 





After The Fire. 
This Horse Had No 
Time To Escape 



12 



FIGHTING THE ENEMY 



By William H. Zeh, Senior Forester 




Two Forest Offi- 
cers were sitting in the 
fire dispatcher's office 
at Whiteriver on the Fort 
Apache Reservation. The 
day was still and sultry. 
Various maps were on the 
walls and on the table 
stood a standby radio re- 
ceiver. Suddenly a voice 
was heard, clear and in- 
sistent: "KNLUM calling 
•KNLU — KNLUM calling KNLU. 
Am standing by." 

In an instant the 
switch was thrown and the 

An Enemy Of The Forest. An Abandoned Camp With fire dispatcher flashed the 
_. TT .. • v, j 1/ -m 4. -cm « message, "Go ahead, KNLUM." 
Fire Unextinguished. Many Forest Fires Are ^ ' 

Started In This Manner. _ , . _ . 

In one brief in- 
stant, there was received 
by radio from a young full-blood Apache stationed at a far distant mountain 
top, news of the approach of a dreaded enemy capable of laying waste to the 
green mountain slopes of his homeland and threatening the supply of the life- 
giving waters needed in the fertile valleys. 

Shortly after Lee Harvey, the Apache Indian guard, had radioed the 
fire re-oort to the dispatcher, a crew of Attache Indian Emergency Conservation 
workers was on the way to the fire. After a short, hot battle the last ember 
was extinguished and the crew returned to camp in time for a shower before 
supper. Bad news - quick arrival - hard work - all over! 

The lookouts are the eyes of a. fire-fighting organization. They 
and the guards play a very important part during each fire season. Through 
their alertness, this one reservation fire dispatcher was able to control 
thirty-seven fires set by a lightning storm within a period of twenty-four 
hours, holding each fire down to the very minimum size. Fire-fighting is 
hard and exacting work. It takes men of good judgment, knowledge of forest 
fires, reliability and courage. Fire-fighting contains an element of battle, 



13 




and even though it is hard 
work, it is also interest- 
ing and challenging and 
presents a field of activ- 
ity well suited to a large 
number of young Indian men. 

A few days after 
the radio call was sent in 
by Apache Lee Harvey, an 
inspection of the lookout 
and the guard station from 
which this call was received 
was made and Lee Harvey dem- 
onstrated the setting up and 
use of the portable field 
radio set. Inspection of 
this station was very satisfactory and this Indian lad is to be commended 
for his interest in and knowledge of radio as applied to forest protection. 



Port Apache Reservation, Arizona 
Fire Guards With Portable Radio 



FIRE-FIGHTING - NOW AND LATER 
By William H. Zeh, Senior Forester 
1935 



It was a wild, 
fast drive - bounce - 
bump - hang on; then a long 
hike, too long it seemed - 
the tools were heavy, the 
water canteen became light- 
er too rapidly; thoughts wan- 
dered to the fire emergency 
rations - too often. But 
the work had not yet begun. 
Finally the acrid smoke be- 
came thinner, then was heard 
the roar of the flames as a 
fire crowned in a thicket 
of pine reproduction. 




Fire On Crow Reservation. Summer, 1936. 



Then work - shovel - chop - shovel - 

"Cut that fire off before it gets into that thicket 1" 



14 



Then shovel - chop - shovel - 
sweat - retreat - shovel - chop - curse: 
"Where's that blankety-blank water boy?" 

"Gosh, it's hot l« 

The smoke is hurting the lungs, 
the eyes are burning like hot coals, cot- 
ton is in the mouth, the throat feels 
cracked. 

"Head her off, boys, before she 
gets into that pine reproduction." 

Chop - shovel - backfire - 

"Hurrah, we held the linel" 

Then the water - rations - gosh, 
the blisters; sparks rain the shirt; the 
eyebrows are singed . . . 

"Wasn't it a hot one, but we got 
it licked." 

The fire report records five acres 
burned, six men on the fire; total time, 
seventy-two man-hours. 



1945 

We happened to hear this bit of 
conversation between the fire dispatcher 
of Reservation X and the pilot of the plane, 
Forest Fire-Fighter No. 1. 




Lightning - Another Enemy 
Of The Forest 



"Hello, Jack, lookouts on Electric Butte and Grizzly Peak just re- 
ported a fire started by lightning. Our maps show that it is in pine re- 
production on Truckee Ridge-, the Coordinates are R - 12§. The maps show 
an opening sufficiently large for your aircraft to land within a quarter of 
a mile to the south. Wind velocity is ten miles per hour from the south- 
west. Use chemical bombs C. Q. to check the fire until you have landed your 
plane and you and Jim arrive to mop up. Use chemical back packs B. Q. for 
fire control and mopping up in the reproduction thickets. Report by radio 
to the dispatcher's office result of your chemical bombs and report again 
before you leave. Tour course is N. 22 West." 

The fire report records one-tenth acre burned, two men on the fire; 
total time, one man-hour. 



15 



SHERMAN STUDENTS PRAISED FOR WORK IN FIRE LAST FALL 



Mr. D. H. Biery, 

Superintendent Sherman Institute, 
Riverside, California. 

Dear Mr. Biery: 

In expressing thanks on behalf of the staff of this Forest and myself 
for the assistance which your institute gave us on the East Etiwanda Fire I 
cannot forbear a word of praise for the performance of the hoys from your 
school. 

Even some of the oldest timers in the Forest Service game who were 
on the fire made the statement time and again that they had never seen a 
group of fire-fighters who did better work than the boys from the Sherman In- 
stitute. Even the little fellows whom we assigned to kitchen work performed 
in wonderful shape and received the praise of the Army officers who were con- 
ducting the mess. True, the boys were earning a little pin money but none of 
my men ever heard one of these boys while on the fire, speak of wages due; 
their chief aim seeming to be to do everything they could to carry on the 
fire fighting work to the best of their ability. 

The boys were well-behaved, well-disciplined, well-officered by 
their own leaders and did the hardest kind of work without complaint and I 
wish to express to them through you the appreciation of myself and force for 
their work on the Ea9t Etiwanda fire. We will clear our pay rolls and get 
the checks to the boys just as speedily as possible. 

The work of the boys made such an impression that I am looking for- 
ward when time will permit to pay a visit to your institution since I am sure 
you must be doing wonderful work in your school to be able to turn out such 
a fine group of clean-cut youths as worked on our recent fire. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) William V. Jones, 

Forest Supervisor 

San Bernardino National Forest 



16 



THE PAPAGO COUNCIL 
Papago Agency, Sells, Arizona 




Left to right: 
Name 



District 



Stanley Juan Sif-Oidak 

Jose Raymond • Pisinemo 

John Mendez Sells 

Richard Hendricks Chukut-Kuk 

Jose X. Pahlo S'Chuk-Toak 

Henry Throssell , Treasurer Chukut-Kuk 

Jose Telio San Xa.vier 

Henry Manuel Sif-Oidak 

Ida Norris, Secretary Sells 

Bernafce Lopez , S ' Chuk-Toak 

John Ortiz, Vice-Chairman San Xavier 

Espirito Adams Gue-Va 

Jose Ignacio, Chairman Sells 

Jose Listo S^e Achi de Santa Rosa 

Juan Harvey Bahoquivari 



17 



21 

81 

mi 

Si 

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M 

3 






S3 



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18 



THIRD GROUP OF CHIEF CLERKS MEETS 



The third group of chief clerks met in Washington from April 5 to 
12. In line with the previous two conferences, a scheduled procedure was 
followed which included instructions in office practice, the reviewing of 
common problems and interpretations of regulations. As evidence of the 
diversity of duties of chief clerks, discussions ranged from accounting 
methods, personnel appointment procedure and bonding of personnel, to the 
problem of unexpected and not always welcome gifts originating from other 
Government departments and accepted by the Washington Office for shipment to 
the field. 



Gift Horses Are Looked In The Mouth 

Some of these, such as the surplus army clothing of high quality, 
have been of tremendous value. Other gifts, such as fifty pairs of size 
fourteen rubber boots, or carloads of pungently soiled, unassorted and worn- 
out socks, have been less welcome, particularly when they have arrived with- 
out warning or explanation, accompanied by sizable freight bills. "We got 
a sort of instrument once," said one chief clerk, "and nobody around our 
agency knows what it is for. It must be good for something - it looks ex- 
pensive and is all done up in a leather case. We didn't ask for it: it just 
came. But we are responsible for it, and we still don't know what it is for." 



Commissioner Collier Exten ds Greeting 

Commissioner Collier, in speaking informally to the group said: 

"I would like to tell you what I told a previous group of chief 
clerks: that I feel, as I know Mr. Zimmerman ana Mr. Crosthwait do also, that 
there are no men or women who occupy positions more inmortant than those of 
chief clerks. The chief clerk pretty nearly makes or breaks his jurisdic- 
tion. It may not seem, on the surface, that what he is doing is all-impor- 
tant; much of what he does must necessarily be details and mechanics. But if 
he does not take care of these mecnanics wisely the superintendent is frus- 
trated in his whole policy. In one sense, perhaps the chief clerk's role 
is obscure, but we know that if he fails, everything fails. Chief clerks 
are almost the keystone of the arch of Indian Service. 



19 



"I am glad that Mr. Crosthwait has instituted this urogram of bringing 
groups of chief clerks in to Washington and discussing with them common prob- 
lems and methods of procedure. It gives some of us here a chance to know you. 
I hope that this practice may become a periodical one. I only wish I could 
myself have seen more of you and have come to know you personally. I am 
glad that you are here." 



Twenty-Four Jurisdictions Represented 
Those present at this third group meeting were: 

Harold M. Knutson ... Senior Clerk Blackfeet Agency, Montana. 

John L. Walters Senior Clerk Cherokee Agency, North Carolina. 

Herbert D. Milburn .. Senior Clerk Cheyenne & Arapaho Agency, Oklahoma. 

Charles W. Higham ... Principal Clerk .. Chilocco School, Oklahoma. 

Gordon G. Griffiths . Senior Clerk Choctaw Agency, Mississippi. 

Joseph V. King Senior Clerk Consolidated Chippewa Agency, Minnesota. 

Lola M. Rambo Private Secretary. Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma. 

Russell J. Yaughan .. Senior Clerk Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma. 

LeRoy Dufford Clerk Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma. 

Leonard L. Smith .... Senior Clerk Fort Berthold Agency, North Dakota. 

Gordon J. Baber Senior Clerk Great Lakes Agency, Wisconsin. 

Jessie Marsh Senior Clerk Haskell Institute, Kansas. • 

Lloyd G. Andrews .... Senior Clerk Keshena Agency, Wisconsin. 

Patrick Hamley Senior Clerk Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma. 

AnnaO. Goodwin Clerk Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma. 

Dick Gentry Senior Clerk Osage Agency, Oklahoma. 

Clifford C. Marrs ... Senior Clerk Osage Agency, Oklahoma. 

Cicero L. Lynch Clerk Paiute Agency, Utah. 

Alex D. McDougal . . <, . Senior Clerk Pawnee Agency, Oklahoma. 

Joseph Blandin Senior Clerk Potawatomi Agency, Kansas. 

John A. Phifer Senior Clerk Quapaw Agency, Oklahoma. 

James H. Brott Senior Clerk Red Lake Agency, Minnesota. 

David E. Livesay .... Senior Clerk Sac and Fox Sanatorium, Iowa. 

Thurman Bohart Financial Clerk .. Sequoyah Training School, Oklahoma. 

Victor E. Godfrey ... Clerk Shawnee Sanatorium, Oklahoma. 

Arthur B. Daniels ... Financial Clerk .. Tomah Agency, Wisconsin. 

Hiram N. Clark Senior Clerk Winnebago Agency, Nebraska. 

Janet V. Sharp Principal Clerk .. Irrigation Service, Washington. 

Nathan G. Murray .... Senior Clerk Irrigation Service, Arizona. 

W. R. Elliott Senior Clerk Irrigation Service, Arizona. 

H. W. Palmer Principal Clerk .. Irrigation Service, California. 

Merle V. Mooney Assistant Clerk .. Seminole Agency, Florida. 



20 



WADE CRAWFORD . KLAMATH SUPERINTENDENT . SEPARATED FROM INDIAN SERVICE 

Secretary Ickes, on recommendation of Commissioner Collier, ap- 
proved on April 30 the separation of Wade Crawford from the position of Su- 
perintendent of the Klamath Indian Agency in Oregon. 

Commissioner Collier expressed regret concerning the necessity for 
having to take this a.ction, as he had personally selected Mr. Crawford, a 
member of the Klamath Tribe, for the position from which he was separated. 
The Commissioner stated that Mr. Crawford's separation from the Service was 
not due to any charges reflecting upon Mr. Crawford's honesty, but rather 
that such separation was made necessary because of the inability of Superin- 
tendent Crawford to meet adequately many of the difficult administrative prob- 
lems, particularly personnel problems, arising on the reservation, and espe- 
cially because of the Indians' inability to maintain harmonious relations 
with him. 

During the three and one-half years of Superintendent Crawford 1 s 
incumbency, the Commissioner pointed out, there has been a personnel turnover 
of practically 200$ in the professional, technical and clerical branches of 
the reservation organization, the highest personnel turnover on any of the 
fourscore reservations. Constant demands have come from the Klamath Indians 
that Superintendent Crawford should be dismissed. Two years ago Commissioner 
Collier vigorously defended Superintendent Crawford's policies before the 
House Committee on Indian Affairs. Since then, two separate investigations 
by agents not connected with the Indian Service have been made of conditions 
on the Klamath Reservation. Both investigators, among other things, recom- 
mended that Mr. Crawford be removed from the position of Superintendent. 

The action in the case of Superintendent Crawford, the Commrasioner 
averred, did not imply any modification or alteration in the policy of Secre- 
tary Ickes to place properly qualified persons of Indian blood in executive 
positions in the Indian Service. Commissioner Collier pointed out that under 
the present Administration, the number of Indians employed in the Indian Serv- 
ice has been materially increased, and at the present time there are over 
3,000 Indians regularly employed in the Indian Service. Among these Indian 
employees are Mark Burns, a Chippewa Indian who is Coordinator of all Indian 
Service activities in the Great Lakes Area; Dr. Henry Roe Cloud, a full-blood 
Winnebago Indian, who is a Supervisor of Indian Education; Ralph Fredenberg, 
a member of the Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin who has made a fine record as 
Superintendent of the Menominee Reservation; Robert Yellowtail, a full-blood 
Crow Indian, Superintendent of the Crow Reservation in Montana; Thomas Dodge, 
member of the Navajo Tribe who is Assistant to the Superintendent of the Navajo 
Reservation; Gabe Parker, a Choctaw, Superintendent of the Winnebago Agency 
in Nebraska; and several others in positions of similar importance. 



21 



STU DENT ACTIVITIES AT SHERMAN INSTITUTE . RIVERSIDE , CALIffOBNIA 




Ute Indian Girl Engaged In Arts end Crafts Work 




Student Painters On Exterior Work 



22 



STUDENT ACTIVITIES AT SHERMAN INSTITUTE , RIVERSIDE , CALIFORNIA 




Farm Fence Building 




Klamath Student Operating Hoist For Concrete Carriage 

23 



INDIAN EDUCATION THROUGHOUT THE YEARS 



By Miguel H. Trujillo, (Isleta Indian) 
Day School Teacher At Para je,« New Mexico 

From early times the Indians were recognized as being wards of the 
Federal Government . Up to 1824 all relations with the Indians were conducted 
through the War Department, hut in that year the separate Office of Indian 
Affairs was created and in 1832 Indian education was placed on its present 
footing "by the creation of the office of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

Changes In The Government's Policy 

The first work in education of Indians was done hy religious denom- 
inations through mission schools. The beginnings of Indian education by the 
Government were made under law of 1819, which authorized the President to em- 
ploy capable persons to instruct Indians in agriculture and to educate their 
children in reading, writing and arithmetic. For this purpose, Congress ap- 
propriated $10,000. The following year the President was authorized to use 
the money to aid societies and individuals engaged in the education of the 
Indians. For the next half-century Indian education was conducted largely 
by the various religious denominations aided by small Congressional appropri- 
ations. 

A new policy was adopted in 1876, that of providing for education 
of the Indians under strictly governmental auspices and with this change the 
real development of Indian education began in 1896. A contemporary report 
stated that it was "a settled policy of the government to hereafter make no 
appropriations whatever in any sectarian school." 

The Johnson-O'Malley Act of April 1934 began the establishment of 
Federal-State cooperation for the education of Indian children. The act 
authorizes contracts with the states to provide education of Indians in the 
public schools with the aid of Federal funds. 

The appropriations made by the Federal Government to defray the 
expenses of educating the Indians have ranged from $10,000 in 1819 to 
$9,771,000 in 1933, then to $9,405,375 for the year which will end June 1937. 

Throughout the entire educational history related above, various 
educational policies and objectives were adopted, altered, cast away and 
others substituted in an attempt to solve the problem — How Shall We Educate 
The Indian? Let me review briefly a few. 



24 



Indians Must Be Civilized, Said Calhoun 

In 1820, John C. Calhoun reported as follows to the House in regard 
to the spending of an appropriation of $10,000 for Indian education made the 
previous year. "Although partial advances may be ma.de under the present 
system to civilize the Indians, I am of the opinion that until there is a 
radical change in the system any efforts which may he made must fall short of 
complete success. They must he gradually brought under one authority and 
laws, or they will insensibly waste away in vice and misery. It is impossible 
with their customs that they should exist as independent communities in the 
midst of civilized society. They are not an independent people (I speak of 
these surrounded by our population) nor ought they to be so considered. They 
should be taken under our guardianship; our opinions and not theirs ought to 
prevail in measures intended for their civilization and happiness. A system 
less vigorous may protract but cannot arrest their fate." 

" Of All Irrational Creatures " 

In 1898, the Indian educational problem brought forth the following 
possible solution according to a report of the Superintendent of Indian 
Schools: "How can we best discharge the obligation we owe these people? In 
the first place, the Indian must be separated from all traditions and cus- 
toms and he must be stimulated by a purer and more invigorating social and 
moral atmosphere. In our efforts to humanize, Christianize and educate the 
Indian we should endeavor to divorce him from his primitive habits and cus- 
toms ... Of all irrational creatures upon the face of the earth, Indian girls 
are at the head. They seem peculiarly possessed to act contrary to reason... 
With the white child, prudence has set limits; with the Indians they are 
absolutely nowhere ... He even goes beyond this and glories in suicide ... 
The Indian is the strangest compound of individualism and socialism run to 
seed. It is this being that we endeavor to make a member of a new social 
order ... To do this we must recreate him, make a new personality." 

Accordingly, for the most part up until about ten years ago, the 
best educational method in educating the Indians was to catch the young In- 
dians, separate them from their parents and teach them the white man's ways. 
Thus, hundreds of little Indians were rounded up and shipped perhaps hundreds 
of miles away to boarding school to be "recreated and humanized" and finally 
to "divorce them from their primitive habits and customs." 

The Boarding School Bra 

During this "humanizing period" the youngsters were forbidden to 
speak their native language in order that they might better learn the white 
man 1 3 language. If the little Indians forgot and spoke Indian they were sub- 
jected to corporal punishment that was reminiscent of the feudal times in 
the white man's history. Jails were part of the educational institutions 
and were used to retract those who persisted to cling to their primitive ways 
and also those that managed to run away from the "school" and were later re- 

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captured. Throughout this "recreation" the Indian youth was made to under- 
stand that everything his parents had taught him was wrong. If his parents 
objected and interfered they were given jail sentences also. Heading, writ- 
ing, and arithmetic were taught; and trades also, although far removed from 
the child's needs and the environment of Indian life. 

The foregoing may be considered sentimental- But one is not apt 
to forget soon one's own subjection to such an "educative process." 



Indian Administration Survey Requested 

In June 1926, Dr. Hubert Work, then Secretary of the Interior, re- 
quested the Institute of Government Research to make a comt)lete survey of the 
Indian Service and its problems. The aim of the survey was to make findings 
from which might be formulated a more economical and efficient policy of In- 
dian administration and perhaps a more realistic educational system. 

The survey was made by Dr. Lewis Meriam and a staff composed of 
specialists in education, health, economic welfare, agriculture and family 
and community life. "The Problem of Indian Administration," as the Meriam 
Report is called, was submitted to the Secretary in February 1928. 



Meriam Report Urges Educational Ch anges 

.The report stressed the importance of utilizing the fundamental 
psychological and anthropological facts of the Indian in regard to his edu- 
cation. It stated in part, "The Indian Service has not appreciated the 
fundamental importance of family life and community activities in the social 
and economic development of a people." Then its recommendations stated, 
"The first and foremost need of Indian education is a change in point of view. 
Whatever may have been the official governmental attitude, education for the 
Indian in the past has proceeded largely on the theory that it is necessary 
to remove the Indian child as far as possible from his home environment; 
whereas the modern view in education and social work lays stress on upbring- 
ing in the natural setting of home and family life. The Indian educational 
enterprise is peculiarly in need of the kind of approach that recognizes 
this principle; that is less concerned with a conventional school system and 
more with the understanding of human beings. The methods must be adapted to 
individual abilities, interests and needs. 

"Indian tribes and individual Indians within the tribes vary so 
greatly that a standard content and method of education, no matter how care- 
fully prepared, would be worse than futile. The curriculum must not be uni- 
form and standardized. The textbooks must not be prescribed . From the 
educational standpoint the young child does not belong in a boarding school." 



27 



Thus did the Meriam Report revolutionize the Indian educational 
theory. It has been the basis of all governmental policies in regard to the 
Indian educational system. 



Commissioner Rhoads States New Educational Purpose 

So in 1931, Commissioner of Indian Affairs Charles J. Rhoads, 
declared in his Annual Report, "The purpose of education for any indigenous 
peoples at the present day is to help these peoples both as groups and as 
individuals to adjust themselves to modern life, protecting and preserving 
as much of their own way of living as possible and capitalizing their econ- 
omic and cultural resources for their own benefit and as their contribution 
to mpdern civilization." 




School Children, Alabama and Coushatta Reservation, Texas 



Present Administration Furthers Realistic Objectives 

Then in 1935, the present Commissioner of Indian Affairs, John 
Collier, stated in the Annual Report to the Secretary of the Interior, "It 
should be the aim of Indian education, at least for the next generation, to 
deliver Indian adolescents fully and practically prepared to make the most of 
their available resources, adolescents in whom the tie that binds them to 
their homeland has been strengthened rather than broken, Indian youth with 
wide horizons, bilingual, literate, yet proud of their racial heritage, to 
become completely self-supporting ... at the same time, Indian education 



28 



must reckon with the fact that there will "be Indian children for types of 
employment removed from Indian reservations, also that there will he Indian 
children of more than ordinary ability and talents who must be given an op- 
portunity to develop this ability and these talents to the highest ooint for 
use either in the white conroetitive world, in Indian life on the reservation, 
or in the Federal Indian Service." 

Consistent with the policies just related, the Indian Service has 
been engaged in remodeling the educational program. Its major tasks have 
been the improvement of the existing schools, the reducing and eliminating 
of the boarding schools where possible and establishing and developing new 
day schools in Indian communities. 

Where Indian Children Attended School In The School Year 

1935 - 1936 

Local Public Schools 50,328 

Federal Day Schools 10,509 

Federal Reservation Boarding Schools 8,509 

Federal Non-Reservation Boarding Schools 4,192 

Mission, Private and State Day Schools 1,455 

Mission, Private and State Boarding Schools 6|543 

Sanatorium Schools '443 

Special Schools 447 

Not in School !!!!. 13,855 

Perhaps the most significant of the changes in tne educational pro- 
gram is the modern philosophy and practice of education adopted by those 
responsible for the education of the Indians. This is indicated by the 
setting up of realistic educational objectives in the schools, based on 
actual environmental factors and needs of the Indians. Curricula have 
been adapted to meet the needs of adults as well as of the pupils enrolled 
with emphas^ on the use and conservation of the Indians' own resources. Then 
there has appeared a sympathetic attitude of the Government in the apprecia- 
tion and acceptance of the Indians' cultural contribution and non-interference 
in the religious life and exoression of the Indians. 

With an increase in day school attendance from 5,063 in 1932 to 
10,000 in 1936; with increased attendance in all Indian schools; with adults 
taking advantage of special schools; and with more than 200 young Indians 
attending colleges and institutions of higher learning - it is clearly evi- 
dent that Indians are taking full advantage of all the opoortunities offered 
by the Federal Government. 



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30 



"SCHOOL DAYS IN SAN JUAN" 



A fourth booklet in the series of Indian children's own writings, 
"School Days in San Juan" , has been issued. The material was prepared by San 
Juan children and Bhoda Tubbs, formerly their teacher. The booklet was 
edited by Miss Rose K. Brandt and printed at Haskell. A sample from the 
text and the delightful drawings which accompany it is shown on the opposite 
page. 



HEALTH CONFERENCE JN WASHINGTON 
By Dr. J. G. Townsend, Director of Health 

The District Medical Directors of the Indian Service met in Wash- 
ington Aoril 5 to 15 for their annual conference with the Health Division. 
At these yearly meetings, general medical policies and programs are formulated; 
also medical directors have the opportunity of attending the Conference of 
State and Territorial Health Officers which is held annually in Washington. 

The following officers of the Indian Service were in attendance: 
Dr. W. S. Stevens of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Dr. J. F. Worley of San Fran- 
cisco, California; Dr. L. A. Fullerton of Spokane, Washington; Dr. L. R. White 
of Minneapolis , Minnesota; Dr. J. F. van Ackeren of Juneau, Alaska; Dr. W. W. 
Peter of Window Rock, Arizona; Dr. Polk Richards of Albuquerque, New Mexico? 
and Dr. Joseph D. Aronson of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Also present were 
Miss Grace G. Engleman, Supervisory Trachoma Nurse from Albuquerque and Miss 
Mabel L. Morgan, District Supervisory Nurse from Minneapolis. 

Of outstanding importance at the conference was the round table dis- 
cussion on tuberculosis. Dr. E. R. Long, Director of the Henry Phipps Insti- 
tute i,n Philadelphia and Consultant for the Indian Service in Tuberculosis, 
Dr. William Charles White, Chairman of the Research Committee, National Tuber- 
culosis Association and Dr. Louis I. Dublin of the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York City, contributed to this meeting. 

At a discussion of trachoma work Dr. Harry S. Gradle of Chicago, 
who has recently been appointed Consultant in Trachoma, outlined plans for the 
control of this disease in the Indian Service. It has been estimated that 
there are approximately 30,000 cases of trachoma among the Indian population 
of the United States: obviously measures for its control are of extreme im- 
portance. The Committee on Conservation of Vision, State and Territorial 
Health Officers, introduced a resolution which was passed by the Association 
that the State Health Officers give closer cooperation to the Indian Service 
in the eradication of trachoma among Indians. 

31 



NAVAJO TRIBAL COUNCIL REORGANIZES 



The Navajo constitutional assembly met at Window Rock, Arizona, 
April 9 and 10 to discuss the reorganization of the Navajo Tribal Council. 



follows: 



Last November the Navajo Tribal Council passed a resolution as 

"Be it resolved by the Navajo Tribal Council in coun- 
cil assembled that a new Tribal Council be organized as 
soon as practicable; 

"Be it further resolved that a committee consisting 
of the present members of the executive committee and the 
former chairmen of the Tribal Council be, and the same is 
hereby appointed for the purpose of calling a constitution- 
al assembly for the purpose of considering and adopting a 
constitution or by-laws for the Navajo people." 

The committee set to work during the winter, and, by means of many 
local meetings, recruited outstanding headmen from all Navajo districts, in- 
cluding the remote outlying areas. A final selection of 70 delegates was 
made, 66 of whom attended the meeting. Twelve members of the existing coun- 
cil were present. 

After explanations and discussions, which several times grew heated, 
a resolution was passed by which the old council was dissolved and the as- 
sembly formed itself into a tribal council. 

The constitutional committee, appointed by the new council chair- 
man, Henry Taliman, will draft a provisional constitution, which will be sub- 
ject to aporoval of the Secretary of the Interior, and which will then go 
before the Navajo Tribe for ratification. 

* 

Two excerpts from the many speeches follow: 

Dashne Clah Chischillige : ... I have been to school 
ever since I was a little boy and the Government has spent 
a lot of money to educate me. It has been said around 
Shiprock that this Reorganization Committee is to draft a 
new constitution. I want to say that I have worked with 
the committee end upheld the men and that we try to explain 
some of the policies put out by Washington, and if we vote 
on this it does not mean that it becomes a law. It must al- 
so be acted upon by the Secretary of the Department of the 



32 




Delegates To The Constitutional Assembly, Who Became The 
Navajo Tribal Council, With Henry Tpliman As Chairman 




Chee Dodge, Tribal Leader And Past Chairman Of The 
Navajo Tribal Council 

33 






Interior. We want you people to know that we are in favor 
of the movement put out by Washington. I know that you 
people would not want this reservation to "be allotted and 
this constitution would have a provision to abolish that 
part of it. ****♦*«** 

Chee Dodge : Now we have to put our heads together 
and work out our own salvation, for ourselves and for our 
fine young men and women. We have to do something for the 
years to come. I have sheep just like any other Navajo, 
and the Government has been after me many years. I have 
repeatedly said before many meetings that I will have to 
fail in line with the land management program the same as 
the rest of the Navajos. If we would have taken care of 
our range, there would not be any starvation on the range 
such as there is now with thousands of sheep dying. That 
should be a lesson to us. 



OWENS VALLEY LAND EXCHANGE BILL BECOMES LAW 



A ten-year effort to bring about the rehabilitation of some 700 In- 
dian residents of the Owens Valley, California, culminated during the last 
days of April in the passage of an enabling act authorizing the exchange of 
certain lands and water rights between the City of Los Angeles and the local 
Paiute Indians. 

Several decades ago, the City of Los Angeles, in quest of an addi- 
tional water supply, built a 200-foot aqueduct, through which it conveyed 
the bulk of the Owens Valley Water to southern California. The city then 
was compelled to acquire practically all of the land in the Owens Valley in 
order to protect its water supply. Through these acquisitions the valley 
was practically dried up and the ranches upon which most of the Indians had 
been finding employment ceased to operate and the ranchers moved away. 

The resident Indians, however, did not move away. This valley was 
their ancestral and deeply beloved homeland. 

Through the efforts of Superintendent Alida C. Bowler and others, 
the Water Department of the City of Los Angeles was induced to agree tenta- 
tively to place at the disposal of the Indians a tract of land wi f ,h suffi- 
cient water to make farming operations possible for the Indians, the Govern- 
ment and the Indians in turn compensating the City of Los Angeles by the 
transfer of certain less desirable lands with and without a water supply. 
This exchange of land for land with more water now has received the approval 
of Congress and the President, and a rehabilitation program for the Indians 
can now be ma.de effective. The City of Los Angeles presumably will vote on 
the question in the early future. If the vote is favorable the Owens Valley 
Indians will be assured of homes and land in the one place they wish to live. 

54 



POL ITICS AT SOLOMON 
By Mabel Nigh Nylen, Teacher 
Solomon, Alaska. 




The Native Preacher And Former Village Mayor With His Family 

The station at Solomon, Alaska, was opened November 1, 1934. School 
began the first Monday thereafter amid great enthusiasm by both young and old. 
The older people felt pride in this sign of growth and improvement of their 
village; the older children were eager to go to school — most of them for 
the first time; the smaller children were thrilled over anything new, especial- 
ly some place to go and do things they couldn't do at home. 



35 



A few months after the school was established, a meeting was called 
of all adult Eskimos and it was suggested that they elect a mayor and village 
hoard (since elaborated to a City Council), in an effort to create a feeling 
of responsibility and a pride in achievement. 

Tom Tootkaylok was elected. He served well and was soon elevated 
also to the position of village preacher. He took great pride in both sta- 
tions and carried them out in his quiet, conscientious way, to the best of 
his ability. 

But late this fall there began to be an undercurrent of ill feeling. 
The exact primary factor has not yet been discovered and probably never will 
be. Jealousy suddenly developed over one citizen's being too long honored 
with the position of both mayor and preacher - although the natives' own votes 
had elected him - when there are so few chairs of honor to be appropriated in 
a small village. So while the end of Tom's second term of office was still 
some months away, an irate citizen suddenly demanded a new election for mayor. 
The Eskimos forthwith held the election. 




Solomon's New Mayor And His Family 

Tom lost by one vote (although his friends informed the teacher 
that some of his enemies had cast three votes each against him). And Milton 
Adams, who had moved into the village only when the Office of Indian Affairs' 
station was opened, so that he might send his children to school, was elected. 

I made no protest about the election but suggested we forget all 
past differences and stand behind our new mayor to see what good could be ac- 
complished. 

Milton Adams was something of a character in Solomon, partly be- 
cause he was a newcomer - although most of the native people here knew him 



36 



elsewhere - partly because he had more education than any of the others, but 
mainly "because of his independent nature. He is one Eskimo who pays as he 
goes and can be ruled by no man through credit. He has a philosophy of his 
own which he sometimes expresses in his own characteristic way. 

Soon after his election, Mayor Adams called a village meeting. 
Everyone came; old, young and babies. He addressed them thus: 

"For two years now you been after me to play in this thing - this 
politics and City Council and all them kinds of stuff. I don't want to be 
in it because I seen it other places and always troubles comes up. Sometimes 
one way, sometimes something else again, it comes that makes trouble and all 
them things. 

"Well, now you got me. I'm elected Mayor and I didn't want to 
git it. But you went and got me anyway. So now I'm Mayor. Now you do what 
I say. And you do it too. 

"If I tell one man to do something, he do it; if I tell someone 
else you do something, you do it pretty quick too. Now I'm Mayor and boss 
and all them things and I'm going to see that some things is done right and 
some of these kids that's running round nights and doing things what ain't 
right, they kin look out plenty because I'm going to see about them things 
too. 

"And another thing, some things you bother them teacher about, 
you can come see me instead. Then if I think it's good to go to teacher, I'll 
go to teacher with you and we fix it up right. Because some of you fellers 
don't know all them reports and everythings and medicines to give out and 
teaching school and maybe washing clothes a little for herself and cooking and 
so like I say, I'll look after them things too. 

"And now this week I want every man in this village to haul one load 
of woods to them Mathews orphans. And what I say you got to do now. And one 
load of woods from every mans this week. 

"Then and another thing. This City Council is going to meet and 
make some rules about what time all them kids got to be at their own homes 
at night time so we got not so much troubles all the times." 

Mayor Adams ended with a flourish amid great applause. Everyone 
agreed that just the right man had been elected Mayor. Some special music 
was rendered and the meeting ended. 

Within certain limitations a Mayor and a village board, elected by 
the natives themselves, undoubtedly can accomplish much good. Working through 
such a group creates a feeling of responsibility in their minds that is an 
education in itself. 

In spite of friction now and then, the Solomon natives are learning 
in an elementary way to rule over themselves. 

37 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE NORTHWEST COMPANY'S POST 
GRAND PORTAGE , MINNESOTA , 1936 
By Ralph D. Brown 
Archaeologist, Minnesota Historical Society 



In the April 15 issue of "Indians At Work", Miss Grace Nute told 
something about the great days of Grand Portage in its prime as a fur-trad- 
ing center of the Northwest Company. 




View Of Part Of Stockade Area. 
Trenches Show Outline Of Part Of Original Stockade 

In the early spring of 1936 a project for the investigation and 
partial reconstruction of the Northwest Company's post, under the Indian Ser- 
vice and with the cooperating supervision of the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, was approved. 

Contemporary Accounts Give General Description 



First we compared contemporary 
accounts of the post - from Harmon, 
Macdonnell, Heriot and Mackenzie. 



Their accounts varied somewhat, hut 
gave a general composite descrip- 
tion of a stockade enclosing an area 



38 



of some 24 x 30 rods, standing to 
the eastward of Mount Rose and just 
west of the small creek running 
through Grand Portage, close to the 
water's edge. The stockade was de- 
scribed as being made of cedar 
pickets - an impressive sight it 
must have been - fifteen feet high 
and sunk three feet into the ground, 
eighteen inches in diameter, accord- 



ing to accounts. There were three 
gates in the stockade wall, over 
which stood two blockhouses. In 
the enclosure, the accounts said, 
were sixteen wooden buildings. 
Their size and dimensions are not 
given, but, it is said, two or three 
hundred persons lived, during the 
busy summer season, within the stock- 
ade. 



Site Of Stockade Reveals Little On Surface 



In early May I accompanied Mr. 
W. M. Babcock of the Historical So- 
ciety's staff on an exploratory 
trip to Grand Portage to examine 
the stockade site. The stockade 
itself had been gone for more than 
a hundred years, and at least two 
houses and a barn have stood on the 
site during the last eighty years. 

What did we find? To begin 
with, little: Two furrows, marking 
stretches of the rear, or north, 
and west stockade walls were easily 



visible. The rear depression meas- 
ured 204 feet in length, while the 
western furrow faded out about 250 
feet from the northwest corner. A- 
side from the two lines of walls, 
no other boundaries of the enclosure 
could be determined from the sur- 
face markings. Midway along the in- 
side of the rear wall lay a scat- 
tered pile of large boulders, and 
farther toward the lake, several oth- 
er heaps of stone, all within the en- 
closure. An overgrowth of brush and 
small trees occupied several hundred 
square yards of the site. 



Excavations Begin 



A month later, on June 10, 
when the ground was free from frost, 
excavation was begun in earnest 
with a crew of six men under my di- 
rection. 

The object in mind at that 
time was chiefly exoloratory: To 
define the position of the old 
stockade walls as far as possible; 
to locate the gates and blockhouses 
if possible, and perhaps the foun- 
dation lines of one or more struc- 
tures. The best plan seemed to be 
to begin work on the west wall 



where the furrow was most strongly 
marked. Along the courses of the 
walls a series of cross trenches 
was dug about six by two to three 
feet and three feet or more in 
depth at right angles to the stock- 
ade furrow. The ground was very 
difficult to dig into, since the top 
soil was full of large stones. 
Seepage was bad in some sections and 
the exploratory pits were soon stand- 
ing full with water. 

Several important features soon 
appeared. The outlines of the orig- 



39 



inal trench were clearly marked on 
the sides of the test pits. The de- 
cayed ends or "bases of more than a 
dozen pickets were found standing in 
position just below the surface of 
ground in the sandy soil toward the 
lake. They were found in relation- 
ship to a number of horizontal logs, 
imbedded in clay fill in their orig- 
inal positions where they had acted 
as sub-surface supports for the 
stockade poles. 



stockade wall running through the 
center of the site; and (6) the ex- 
istence of Indian material in small 
quantity. With the clearing of a- 
bout 1,500 square yards of brush and 
small trees from the enclosure, the 
work in June came to a close. 

We resumed excavation August 
10, but were handicapped by local 
forest fires which our men helped 
fight. 



When the work ceased at the end 
of an eight-dey examination of the 
site, there had been determined (1) 
about one-half of the outline of the 
stockade; (2) the diameter of the 
pickets used in the palisade; (3) 
the nature of the sub-surface con- 
struction of the stockade wall; (4) 
the probable location of one of the 
three gates; (5) the existence of a 




One Of Trenches Showing Some 
Of Original Poles In Place 



It had been intended to lay the 
whole site out with a large crew, to 
trace the remainder of the stockade 
outline, to attempt to find the two 
remaining gates and the blockhouses, 
and the position, perhaps, of other 
structures within the enclosure, if 
time allowed. Actually it was pos- 
sible only to determine the course 
of most of the south wall, much of 
which lay under the roadway, to map 
the site, and to add further speci- 
mens of cultural material to the 
archaeological collection. The sec- 
tion was staked out in five-foot 
squares. The dirt in each square 
was removed in layers to the deoth 
of the undisturbed clay and care- 
fully screened. Our anticipations 
were fulfilled: an arrangement of 
small walls appeared, which may very 
well prove to be the foundation 
lines of a blockhouse, although the 
identity of the structure which they 
supported remains to be definitely 
established. The foundation lines 
ended in a corner which contained 
the butt of the second gate post. 

Later on we were able to build 
our staff up to nineteen and to add 
to it Mr. G. Hubert Smith and Mr. 
Allen Holmberg of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society. 

Then began the intensive work 
of laying open the stockade walls 



40 



whose courses had been determined, 
and of putting in numerous explora- 
tory trenches. Very satisfactory 
progress was made until September 22 
when the nroject money had been al- 
most entirely spent and no more la- 
bor was available. 

By this time the stockade had 
been completely outlined. Its fea- 
tures of construction were now 
fairly clear, and a number of pick- 
ets had been unearthed. One gate, 
and possibly a second, with the 
foundation lines perhaps of a block- 
house, and parts of those of four 
other structures had been unearthed. 

About 200 feet of the stockade 
wall lies under the road, which 
could not and cannot yet be opened. 
In this area there may lie the re- 
maining gate and blockhouse. 

After the departure of the work- 
men, Mr. Smith and Mr. Holmberg con- 
tinued the measurement, description 
and removal of the timbers and the 



mapping of the site. The work for 
the year came to a close the last 
week in October, by which time Mr. 
Smith had been able to define com- 
pletely the foundation lines of one 
structure. 

Knowing that there had been 
three white occupations at Grand 
Portage - French, British and Amer- 
ican, in the order named - we were 
aware of the possibility of the su- 
perposition of occupational debris. 
An examination of certain vertical 
faces indicated that such stratifi- 
cation might be found. It is pos- 
sible that the middle wall and part 
of the west wall marked the line of 
an earlier post, but if this is so, 
it remains to be proved until fur- 
ther excavation can be completed. 
No unit has appeared which can be 
definitely ascribed to the French 
or American occupations. Now there 
is a feeling of certainty that the 
stockade, as outlined at present, 
represents only that of the North- 
west Company. 



Artifacts From Excavations On Display 



Samples of wood fragments from 
excavated areas were sent by Mr. 
William Heritage and Mr. N. W. 
Scherer of the Indian Service to 
the Forest Products Laboratory, Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, for identification 
and comment. Picket sections were 
reported to be white cedar and gate- 
post spruce. The Laboratory re- 
quested the samples to add to their 
museum collection as examples of 
wood known to have lasted a long 
time. It has been proposed to send 
one of the better preserved pickets 
to the Laboratory Museum where it 
will receive permanent care. 



The Cook County Historical So- 
ciety extended the use of space in 
their museum, which stands within 
the stockade enclosure, as store- 
house and workshop. Here the 
cleaned, repaired and labelled ar- 
chaeological specimens were put on 
temporary display. This descriptive 
collection numbers 485 identifiable 
items, which fall almost entirely 
into two groups - trade articles and 
nieces descriptive of trading post 
life. 

There are clay pipe fragments, 
bottle glass, china, earthenware, 



41 



pewter, a spigot, "buttons, knives, 
lead balls, gun pieces, trade rings, 
files, chisels, hinges, nails. 
Properly, this material should be 
on display in a building in the 
stockade enclosure during the sum- 



mer months, if it can have adequate 

care. The preponderance of whiskey 
tumblers, glass bottles and the 
like is understood when it is 
learned that in a single year - 
1803 - the Northwest Company used 
16,299 gallons of liquor. 




Mr. Brown Examining The Artifacts Pound In Trenches 



Complete Excavation Hoped For Later 



Although operations during the 
season were handicapped by water in 
June, fires in August, and through 
our inability to devote uninter- 
rupted attention to the work, they 
were all to the good, and laid a 
definite groundwork for further de- 
velopment of the site. In at least 
three points the investigations 
have indicated shortcomings in the 
recorded observations of the early 
travelers: The greatest dimension 
of the enclosure proved to be 
slightly more than twenty-two rods 
rather than thirty; the diameters 
of the poles of the palisade were 
eight to ten inches usually instead 
of eighteen inches, the measurement 
of the gate posts, whose full diam- 
eters were most apparent; the dis- 
tance of the stockade wall from the 



lake was more nearly twenty feet 
than twenty paces . But perhaps this 
is an indication that the shore line 
has receded during the last 140 
years. 

Foundation lines were worked 
out for one building unit, measur- 
ing eighteen by twenty-six feet. 
Now that it has been proved that 
these exist, it should be possible 
to complete the outlines of the re- 
maining fifteen buildings. Because 
of the importance of the Northwest 
Company's post here, and because, 
fortunately, there is such a wealth 
of cultural debris to be found, it 
is hoped that complete excavation 

of the entire enclosure, with the 
purpose of thoroughly investigating 
all phases of human activity on 
this spot, can be made. 



42 



National Park Service Has Been Pioneer In This Type Of Excavatin g Technique 



Interest was evident on the 
part of nearly all visitors to Grand 
Portage; few could resist visiting 
the excavations, almost none, the 
museum. Some of the more inquisi- 
tive were given a screen and seemed 
highly pleased to have a hand in 
the work. Although the project was 
not publicized, there were callers 
from several states and Ontario, 
some of whom came more than once 
during the summer. The Northwest 
Company was British, and for that 
reason, in one sense, the study and 
development of the Grand Portage 
post as an important historical 
site and memorial is of internation- 
al significance. The interest shown 
by the public is not surprising 
since this is the first work of its 



sort done in Minnesota. Mention of 
the investigation of the Northwest 
Company's post, Port Charlotte, at 
Pigeon River, by Dewey Albinson and 
A. G. Eastman for the Minnesota His- 
torical Society in 1922, should not 
be omitted. 

The approach to the archaeolog- 
ical investigation of an historic 
site differs from that followed in 
classical archaeology or in the 
study of prehistoric sites wherever 
they may be. A satisfactory tech- 
nique appears to be evolving through 
the comparatively small amount of 
work which has been, and is being, 
undertaken in this country, chiefly 
that under the direction of the Na- 
tional Park Service. 




Enrollees Sifting Excavated Earth For 
Artifacts - Beads, Pottery And So Forth 



43 



DAT AND NIGHT - SHO SHORE INDIAN RESERVATION . WTOMIN& 





44 



EDUCATION FOR THE FLORIDA. SEMINOLES 



By F. J. Scott, Superintendent 




Three Seminoles ffho Went 
Away To School 



These three young Florida 
Seminoles are the first of their peo- 
ple to go away to school. They have 
"been at the Cherokee Boarding School 
at Cherokee, North Carolina during the 
current school year. 

Efforts to interest the 
Florida Seminoles in large numbers 
in conventional education have come 
to little. 

Superintendent F. J. Scott, 
who sent the photograph above, tells 
something of these past attempts. 



"During the year 1870, Reverend Frost, a missionary who was very 
much interested in the welfare of the Indians, attempted to establish a 
school for the Florida Seminoles but he soon learned that his well-directed 
efforts were accomplishing nothing and he abandoned the project as one im- 
possible of accomplishment. 

"During the year 1891 Dr. J. E. Brecht was appointed Indian Agent 
and from then until the year 1899 he made a determined effort to interest 
the Indians in education and in work created and intended to improve their 
economic condition, but, after suffering no end of privation and discomfort 
in the deep swamps where the Indians lived and having accomplished practically 
nothing, he reached the conclusion that it would be useless to continue the 
work and he too abandoned the field. 

"From 1899 up to the close of 1926 efforts were made by various 
persons to get the Indians interested in the public schools of the state, in 
which schools it was possible for the Indians to enroll on an equality with 
the white children. A few of them enrolled and attended for short periods 
but soon dropped out after finding the »chool work irksome and the routine 
so much different from their usual happy, carefree camp life. One outstand- 
ing exception was Tony Tommie who attended the public school in Fort Lauder- 
dale for a number of years and made good progress. Unfortunately, however, 
he contracted tuberculosis during his school days and his early death was 
and is pointed to by the older Indians as the result of the white man's edu- 
cation. 



45 



"Early during the year 1926 the United States Indian Service estab- 
lished the Seminole Day School near Dania, and it was opened with an enroll- 
ment of three pupils on the first day of February of that year. It was 
operated for a period of nine years with mediocre success. Because of a lack 
of sufficient interest and attendance the school was abandoned at the close 
of the school year in 1936." 

Present Government policy has been to abandon large-scale attempts 
at education but to encourage the few who are interested. So far none of the 
Southern Seminole group has shown any interest in following the ways of whites, 
nor is the Indian Office attempting to force changes in their point of view. 



NATIONAL FOLK FESTIVAL TO BE HELD IN CHICAGO 



The Fourth Annua] National Folk Festival is being held at Orchestra 
Hall, Chicago, May 22 to 28, under the auspices of the Adult Education Council 
of that city. 

When people from various regions of the United States move across 
the stage of Orchestra Hall with their folk music, songs and dances in eight 
programs from May 22 to 28, it will mark the first time the National Folk 
Festival has been held north of the Mason and Dixon line. 

The objective of the festival has been summed up as: "To bring to- 
gether in a colorful, joy-giving National Folk Festival the native and tradi- 
tional Folk Arts which, for centuries, have refreshed the hearts of the Ameri- 
can, people in the various sections of our land." 

A handicraft exhibit will be held in connection with the Festival. 
At the Dallas (1936) meeting, many examples of Indian work, particularly 
from Oklahoma, were displayed. 

Indians have taken part in the three previous Festivals to a notable 
degree: Kiowa and Eastern Cherokee dancers and Oklahoma Cherokees and Creeks. 
Indian participation is being planned again at the Chicago presentations. 

All those interested in exhibiting Indian handicraft at the coming 
Festival are urged to write to M. J. Pickering, Business Manager, National 
Folk Festival, Room 430, 220 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



Cover Design . The design on the cover of this issue of INDIANS AT 
WORK was submitted by Angel ine Kills In Sight, a sixth grade student in the 
Black Pipe Day School located at Norris, South Dakota. It is a copy of an 
old Sioux design. 



46 



LAST YEAH - A TRAGIC ENDING ; THIS YEAR - HOPE 
By M. R. Wood, Agricultural Extension Agent 
Cheyenne River Agency, South Dakota 

(This story is written from actual happenings at the Green Grass 
Community garden in the spring of 1936.) 

Word came to this community that the I.E.C*W. and Irrigation were 
going to develop a community irrigated garden in the spring at Green Grass, 
where twenty-eight families are living. The I.K.C.W. got things under way 
after a location had been selected by the irrigation engineers. The propo- 
sition was put up to the community members, who were already organized. The 
fifteen acres and the ditches with elevation drainage were divided into plots. 
No two plots were alikB in size or shape. When this was done, the whole proj- 
ect was fenced by the I.E.C.W. crew and everything was in readiness for the 
irrigation pump. 

In the meantime, the selection of plots were discussed within the 
community organization. The president, Ray Claymore, called a meeting and 
it was decided that they would get their tracts by lot. This was done and 
no one expressed any dissatisfaction. 

Everyone went to work preparing the ground. The seeding was done 
in short order and the land worked up easily. Then came the wait until the 
pump came as there was not enough moisture in the ground to bring up the 
seed. After some little delay the pump and pipe were installed and the wa- 
ter was turned on. Of course this was all new to all of us. The first 
garden was about washed out. All the people were out to help and to learn 
what they could. Sixteen families moved camp to the garden and worked on 
each plot in a group when the water was turned on. 

After the first one or two gardens were watered, everyone seemed 
to get the hang of it and could control the water easier and get better 
results with less work. The results were better with every succeeding 
garden watered. The entire 27 plats were watered the first time; then the 
wait until seed came up. One old lady had soaked her garden seed in warm 
water a day or two before she planted; the second day after she planted it 
she came running across the garden to tell the farmer her crop was up. It 
was such a straight row and so well arranged that it did one's hsart good 
to see it. 

The gardens all came through the ground as we had enough moisture 
to wet the ground that far down and it wasn't long before all the gardens 



47 



looked fine and cultivation was in order. When the time came for the second 
watering the river was low and the supply was short. The men took teams and 
scooped out a hole in the river bed to replenish the supply and they ditched 
water holes that were standing above for a mile or more, hoping to get water 
enough for a second irrigation. However, there was only enough water left to 
go over half the plots the second time. This did not discourage them; they 
stayed on. 

We had had reports that bugs and insects were preying on gardens 
in other parts of the reservation but up to this time we had not been troubled 
much. Precautions were taken to combat grasshoppers with poison. The real 
bugs did not arrive in great numbers until later. Then, with insects of all 
kinds and the drought together, it looked like a lost cause, but the communi- 
ty did not give up until the pests had taken everything. I have never seen 
any people put up such a gallant fight and in the end lose everything: not 
a thing was raised in this garden. 

I remember the group dinners we had last summer, consisting mostly 
of bacon, coffee and squaw bread cooked on the campfire, which all the women 
took turns preparing. This hour of eating our evening meal together always 
was one of pleasant relaxation and good fellowship. Afterwards the men and 
women worked and the children played until the evening light was gone. 

In December a five-and-a-half foot check dam was completed across 
the Moreau River. Our water will not fail this year. May the neighborliness 
and energy which these Indians showed not fail either. 



AGED ARAPAB3 LEADER PARTICIPATES IN I.E.C.W CELEBRATION 
AT SHOSHONE AGENCY IN WYOMING 

At the dance held at Port Washakie, Wyoming on April 5 in celebra- 
tion of the fourth anniversary of I.E.C.W., Yellow Calf, 77-year-old Arapaho, 
with a group of Wolf Dancers, gave four dances, accompanied by drummers and 
singers. When asked to dance, Yellow Calf replied, "Yes, I will dance. It 
has been a long time since I have danced, but as we are honoring the I.E.C.W. 
and because it has done much for my people, I will gladly dance. 1 ' 



48 



FROM I.E.C.W. REPORTS 



Truck Trail Graveling On The 
Omaha Reservation ( Winnebago , Nebras- 
ka) . The graveling of the Mission 
Springs Truck Trail has been com- 
pleted and two and a half days have 
been spent in hauling gravel on the 
Howard's Truck Trail. The crew has 
been doing very good work. Norman 
P. Lessor , Foreman . 

Indians At Consolidated Chip - 
pewa ( Minnesota ) Are Good Sportsmen . 
After a long but very successful bas-. 
ket ball season packed with hard- 
fought games, a great amount of laughs 
and fun and some disappointments, our 
team brought home the trophy as the 
North Shore Champions of 1937. After 
being awarded the trophy as the 
strongest team on the north shore, our 
boys received a surorise that made 
them even nrouder than receiving the 
trophy: it was a large gold loving 
cup. To our boys went the honor of 
being the best sportsmen. The trophy 
and the gold cup are now being proud- 
ly displayed as evidence that the In- 
dians still hold a high place in 
sportsmanship and ability. 

Range Revegetation At Seminole 
( Florida ) 32 man-days were spent on 
range revegetation work which con- 
sisted quite largely of clearing brush 
growing on the range and preparing the 
land for revegetation work. 15^ 
acres were completed during the per- 
iod. This work is being done on land 
recently purchased by the Government 
a nd the land is excellent range land. 
The range will be improved materially 
by the removal of the brush. B. L. 
Yates. 



Work On Telephone Line At Col - 
orado River (Ar izona ) Work was 
done on the telephone line from 
Needles, California to the Indian 
Service School on the Fort Mojave 
Indian Reservation in Arizona. The 
line will cross the Colorado River 
and have a total length of 3-5 miles. 
The work for the week consisted of 
removing brush and trees from the 
right-of-way. 

Basket Ball At Fort Belknap 
(Montana ) The E.C.W. basket ball 
team went to Lodge Pole last Sun- 
day and played two games with the 
E.C.W. team there and our team won 
both games. The first was 36 to 8 
and the second game was 32 to 12. 
Last Tuesday night we played a 
game with Lodge Pole and Big Warm 
and we also won that game by 43 to 
18. 

We had a general clean-up of 
the camp this week and have set sev- 
eral rules that are to be followed 
if we want a neat looking camp and 
everyone seems to take an interest 
in helping to keep it that way. 

The local Field Doctor made an 
inspection of the camp this week as 
well as giving several helpful sug- 
gestions that will help to keep san- 
itation of the camp. 

Various Projects At Osage (Ok- 
lahoma ) There are approximately 
nine impounding dam projects to be 
completed before the end of the 
month. Work is progressing nicely 
through the cooperation of the 



49 



leaders and enrollees in striving 
to have this work completed" by this 
time, most of the remaining work to 
be done on these projects consists 
of completing rip-rap and fencing 
of the dams with the exception of 
two which have some more earth work 
to be finished. A tree planting 
project is progressing nicely, the 
work consisting of replanting na- 
tive trees on finished projects in 
places to help prevent erosion of 
the impounding dams. This project 
was made up of savings on completed 
projects. 

Weather conditions have been 
fair with only one bad dust storm, 
but this did not hinder the work 
in any respect. William H. Labodie . 

Picnic At Colville ( Washington ) 
Last Sunday was keenly looked for- 
ward to and was enjoyed immensely by 
practically all the members of this 
camp. It was a nice warm spring 
day. 

We were granted permission to 
use one of the trucks to convey the 
men to the Columbia River at the 
mouth of the San Poil. The day was 
spent fishing, hunting Indian relics 
and taking pictures. Quite a num- 
ber of stone and some bone beads, 
and a few arrowheads were found. 
The fishermen were not so lucky, 
however, this did not dampen the 
spirits of the men, who thoroughly 
enjoyed the outing. This trip 
proved so successful that everyone 
in camp is looking forward for fur- 
ther permission to use one of the 
trucks on week-ends for similar 
trips. David W. Kayes . 

Tree Planting At Consolidated 
Ute ( Colorado ) 100 Chinese elms 
were planted this week. These 



trees are 10 to 12 feet high. Sev- 
eral lilac bushes were moved to bet- 
ter locations. One parallel fence 
was started and is largely complete. 
This fence is necessary to protect 
a row of 50 elms from horses and 
other stock. 300 holes have been 
dug for shrubs to be planted next 
week. The frequent March squalls 
have interf erred with our progress, 
but our Utes have worked well de- 
spite the inclement weather and bit- 
ing winds. This crew has been under 
the direction of Bob Brown Bird. 
Assistant Leader, Ute Indian. H. L. 
Turner , Acting Foreman . 

Numerous Activities At He He 
Mill Camp , Warm Springs ( Oregon ) 
491 trees were found over an acre- 
age of 3,330 acres to be beetle in- 
fested while the treaters treated 
431 trees over an acreage of 6,810 
acres. It has been snowing quite a 
lot during this month and at the 
present time the snow is from 2 to 
3 feet deep which makes it tough 
going for the crews. 

The wood crews have been keeping 
busy cutting wood for the camp during 
the cold spell. They are working 
about a mile from here. 

Three miles of new telephone 
line has been installed on Sidwaller 
Flat on the Simnasho -Agency project, 
while four miles of line was re- 
paired. The telephone crew was 
transferred to the Agency Camp dur- 
ing the first week of this month. 

The carpenter has been busy do- 
ing repair work on the men's cabins, 
kitchen and saw filing shed. The 
bull-dozer has been kept busy keep- 
ing the trails free from snow. Frank 
Murdock. 



50 



Truck Trail Maintenance At Ke - 
shena ( Wisconsin ) Since spring has 
arrived, the trails have made it 
necessary to work in the lakes area 
where the trails have dried up. 

A crew has "been "brushing out 
the Moshoquit Lake Trail and "burn- 
ing the "brush. This is an impor- 
tant trail and always has been dan- 
gerous to drive on. The curves 
have been cleared out so that one 
can see approaching cars. 

The type mapping crew has been 
bringing in a half section per two 
man -crew every day. Two and one- 
half townships have been mapped to 
date. Walter Ridlington . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At Mis - 
sion ( California ) Work of repair- 
ing the damage to the Saasu Truck 
Trail was carried on this week. 
One fill was washed out by water 
entering the trail on the grade a- 
bove it and coming down through a 
cut onto a fill. A side ditch is 
being opened to prevent future dam- 
age. Part of one masonry abutment 
on the first bridge was undermined. 
This is being replaced. Slides and 
gullies are being filled and re- 
paired with teams and fresnos, and 
where possible the trail is being 
dragged. The old truck trail on 
the south side of the river will 
need some maintenance work, but 
we cannot start it this week. Robt . 
W. Buck . 

Clearing Right - Of-Way At Nav- 
ajo ( New Mexico ) We have been 
brushing and clearing up the fallen 
wood for about 100 yards on each 
side of the trail and 200 feet each 
side of the telephone line. We 
have corded up over 200 cords of 



wood, which will be useful here at 
the base camp. John Neil . 

Fire Lane Maintenance At Choc - 
taw-Chickasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) 
Weather Conditions this week have 
been ideal for fire lane maintenance 
work and very nice progress has been 
made. If weather conditions contin- 
ue good we believe we will have our 
fire lanes in very good condition 
within the course of a short time. 
We had some rain last night and the 
wind has been blowing considerable 
today. In fact, too much wind to do 
any fire lane burning. However, 
other work on the fire lanes can be 
carried on very nicely. W. B. Van 
Cleave , M. D., Superintendent . 

Fence Work At Truxton Cp.non 
( Arizona ) Most of our work this 
week has been on fence and truck 
trails. The equipment shed is near- 
ing completion which will be of 
great benefit to the mechanic and 
his helpers. Up until this time 
they have had to work on the ground 
and out in the open, which made it 
very disagreeable. It also made it 
very difficult to keep a good me- 
chanic. James L. Hendricks . 

Well Development At Potawatomi 
( Kansas ) A small crew of men have 
been working on the Iowa Reservation 
this week digging on a well. A 
small crew has been working on the 
Sac and Fox Reservation at seeding 
and sodding on the Connel D a m. A- 
bout 3,000 square yards of work was 
completed. P. Everett Sperry . 

Progress At Tulalip ( Washing - 
ton ) Good progress reported on all 
projects. Planking and backfilling 
is work being performed on Project 
17, nearing completion. T. Lozeau . 



51 



EDUCATION FOR THE FLORIDA SEMINOLES 



By F. J. Scott, Superintendent 




Three Seminoles llho Went 
Away To School 



These three young Florida 
Seminoles are the first of their peo- 
ple to go away to school. They have 
"been at the Cherokee Boarding School 
at Cherokee, North Carolina during the 
current school year. 

Efforts to interest the 
Florida Seminoles in large numbers 
in conventional education have come 
to little. 

Superintendent F. J. Scott, 
who sent the photograph above, tells 
something of these past attempts. - 



"During the year 1870, Reverend Frost, a missionary who was very 
much interested in the welfare of the Indians, attempted to establish a 
school for the Florida Seminoles but he soon learned that his well-directed 
efforts were accomplishing nothing and he abandoned the project as one im- 
possible of accomplishment. 

"During the year 1891 Dr. J. E. Brecht was appointed Indian Agent 
and from then until the year 1899 he made a determined effort to interest 
the Indians in education and in work created and intended to improve their 
economic condition, but, after suffering no end of privation and discomfort 
in the deep swamps where the Indians lived and having accomplished practically 
nothing, he reached the conclusion that it would be useless to continue the 
work and he too abandoned the field. 

"From 1899 up to the close of 1926 efforts were made by various 
persons to get the Indians interested in the public schools of the state, ifc 
which schools it was possible for the Indians to enroll on an equality with 
the white children. A few of them enrolled and attended for short periods 
but soon dropped out after finding the Bchool work irksome and the routine 
so much different from their usual happy, carefree camp life. One outstand- 
ing exception was Tony Tommie who attended the public school in Fort Lauder- 
dale for a number of years and made good progress. Unfortunately, however, 
he contracted tuberculosis during his school days and his early death was 
and is pointed to by the older Indians as the result of the white man's edu- 
cation. 



45 



"Early during the year 1926 the United States Indian Service estab- 
lished the Seminole Day School near Dania, and it was opened with an enroll- 
ment of three pupils on the first day of February of that year. It was 
operated for a period of nine years with mediocre success. Because of a lack 
of sufficient interest and attendance the school was abandoned at the close 
of the school year in 1936." 

Present Government policy has been to abandon large-scale attempts 
at education but to encourage the few who are interested. So far none of the 
Southern Seminole group has shown any interest in following the ways of whites, 
nor is the Indian Office attempting to force changes in their point of view. 



NATIONAL FOLK FESTIVAL TO BE HELD IN CHICAGO 



The Fourth Annual National Folk Festival is being held at Orchestra 
Hall, Chicago, May 22 to 28, under the auspices of the Adult Education Council 
of that city. 

When people from various regions of the United States move across 
the stage of Orchestra Hall with their folk music, songs and dances in eight 
programs from May 22 to 28, it will mark the first time the National Folk 
Festival has been held north of the Mason and Dixon line. 

The objective of the festival has been summed up as: "To bring to- 
gether in a colorful, joy-giving National Folk Festival the native and tradi- 
tional Folk Arts which, for centuries, have refreshed the hearts of the Ameri- 
can people in the various sections of our land." 

A handicraft exhibit will be held in connection with the Festival. 
At the Dallas (1936) meeting, many examples of Indian work, particularly 
from Oklahoma, were displayed. 

Indians have taken part in the three previous Festivals to a notable 
degree: Kiowa and Eastern Cherokee dancers and Oklahoma Cherokees and Creeks. 
Indian participation is being planned again at the Chicago presentations. 

All those interested in exhibiting Indian handicraft at the coming 
Festival are urged to write to M. J. Pickering, Business Manager, National 
Folk Festival, Room 430, 220 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



Cover Design . The design on the cover of this issue of INDIANS AT 
WORK was submitted by Angeline Kills In Sight, a sixth grade student in the 
Black Pipe Day School located at Norris, South Dakota. It is a copy of an 
old Sioux design. 



46 



LAST YEAR - A TRAGIC ENDING ; THIS YEAR - HOPE 
By U. fi. Wood, Agricultural Extension Agent 
Cheyenne River Agency, South Dakota 

(This story is written from actual happenings at the Green Grass 
Community garden in the spring of 1936.) 

Word came to this community that the I.E.C*W. and Irrigation were 
going to develop a community irrigated garden in the spring at Green Grass, 
where twenty-eight families are living. The I.K..C.W. got things under way 
after a location had been selected by the irrigation engineers. The propo- 
sition was put up to the community members, who were already organized. The 
fifteen acres and the ditches with elevation drainage were divided into plots. 
No two plots were alikB in size or shape. When this was done, the whole proj- 
ect was fenced by the I.E.C.W. crew and everything was in readiness for the 
irrigation pump. 

In the meantime, the selection of plots were discussed within the 
community organization. The president, Ray Claymore, called a meeting and 
it was decided that they would get their tracts by lot. This was done and 
no one expressed any dissatisfaction. 

Everyone went to work preparing the ground. The seeding was done 
in short order and the land worked up easily. Then came the wait until the 
pump came as there was not enough moisture in the ground to bring up the 
seed. After some little delay the pump and pipe were installed and the wa- 
ter was turned on. Of course this was all new to all of us. The first 
garden was about washed out. All the people were out to help and to learn 
what they could. Sixteen families moved camp to the garden and worked on 
each plot in a group when the water was turned on. 

After the first one or two gardens were watered, everyone seemed 
to get the hang of it and could control the water easier and get better 
results with less work. The results were better with every succeeding 
garden watered. The entire 27 plats were watered the first time; then the 
wait until seed came up. One old lady had soaked her garden seed in warm 
water a day or two before she planted; the second day after she planted it 
she came running across the garden to tell the farmer her crop was up. It 
was such a straight row and so well arranged that it did one's heart good 
to see it. 

The gardens all came through the ground as we had enough moisture 
to wet the ground that far down and it wasn't long before all the gardens 



47 



looked fine and cultivation was in order. When the time came for the second 
watering the river was low and the supply was short. The men took teams and 
scooped out a hole in the river bed to replenish the supply and they ditched 
water holes that were standing above for a mile or more, hoping to get water 
enough for a second irrigation. However, there was only enough water left to 
go over half the plots the second time. This did not discourage them; they 
stayed on. 

We had had reports that bugs and insects were preying on gardens 
in other parts of the reservation but up to this time we had not been troubled 
much. Precautions were taken to combat grasshoppers with poison. The real 
bugs did not arrive in great numbers until later. Then, with insects of all 
kinds and the drought together, it looked like a lost cause, but the communi- 
ty did not give up until the pests had taken everything. I have never seen 
any people put up such a gallant fight and in the end lose everything: not 
a thing was raised in this garden. 

I remember the group dinners we had last summer, consisting mostly 
of bacon, coffee and squaw bread cooked on the campfire, which all the women 
took turns preparing. This hour of eating our evening meal together always 
was one of pleasant relaxation and good fellowship. Afterwards the men and 
women worked and the children played until the evening light was gone. 

In December a five-and-a-half foot check dam was completed across 
the Moreau River. Our water will not fail this year. May the neighborliness 
and energy which these Indians showed not fail either. 



AGJD ARAPATO LEADER PARTICIPATES IN I.E.C.W CELEBRATION 
AT SH3SH3NE AGENCY IN WYOMING 

At the dance held at Fort Washakie, Wyoming on April 5 in celebra- 
tion of the fourth anniversary of I.E.C.W., Yellow Calf, 77-year-old Araoaho, 
with a group of Wolf Dancers, gave four dances, accompanied by drummers and 
singers. When asked to dance, Yellow Calf reolied, "Yes, I will dance. It 
has been a long time since I have danced, but as we are honoring the I.E.C.W. 
and because it has done much for my people, I will gladly dance." 



48 



FROM I.B.C.W. REPORTS 



Truck Trail Graveling On The 
Omaha Reservation ( Winnebago , Nebras - 
ka ) . The graveling of the Mission 
Springs Truck Trail has been com- 
pleted and two and a half days have 
been spent in hauling gravel on the 
Howard's Truck Trail. The crew has 
been doing very good work. Norman 
P. Lessor , Foreman . 

Indians At Consolidated Chip - 
pewa ( Minnesota ) Are Good Sportsmen . 
After a long but very successful bas- 
ket ball season packed with hard- 
fought games, a great amount of laughs 
and fun and some disappointments, our 
team brought home the trophy as the 
North Shore Champions of 1937. After 
being awarded the trophy as the 
strongest team on the north shore, our 
boys received a surorise that made 
them even orouder than receiving the 
trophy: it was a large gold loving 
cup. To our boys went the honor of 
being the best sportsmen. The trophy 
and the gold cup are now being proud- 
ly displayed as evidence that the In- 
dians still hold a high place in 
sportsmanship and ability. 

Range Revegetation At Seminole 
( Florida ) 32 man-days were spent on 
range revegetation work which con- 
sisted quite largely of clearing brush 
growing on the range and preparing the 
land for revegetation work. 15^ 
acres were completed during the per- 
iod. This work is being done on land 
recently purchased by the Government 
a nd the land is excellent range land. 
The range will be improved materially 
by the removal of the brush. B. L. 
Yates. 



Work On Telephone Line At Col - 
orado River ( Arizona ) Work was 
done on the telephone line from 
Needles, California to the Indian 
Service School on the Fort Mojave 
Indian Reservation in Arizona. The 
line will cross the Colorado River 
and have a total length of 3^ miles. 
The work for the week consisted of 
removing brush and trees from the 
right-of-way. 

Basket Ball At Fort Belknap 
( Montana ) The E.C.W. basket ball 
team went to Lodge Pole last Sun- 
day and played two games with the 
E.C.W. team there and our team won 
both games. The first was 36 to 8 
and the second game was 32 to 12. 
Last Tuesday night we played a 
game with Lodge Pole and Big Warm 
and we also won that game by 43 to 
18. 

We had a general clean-up of 
the camp this week and have set sev- 
eral rules that are to be followed 
if we want a neat looking camp and 
everyone seems to take an interest 
in helping to keep it that way. 

The local Field Doctor made an 
inspection of the camp this week as 
well as giving several helpful sug- 
gestions that will help to keep san- 
itation of the camp. 

Various Projects At Osage (Ok- 
lahoma ) There are approximately 
nine impounding dam projects to be 
completed before the end of the 
month. Work is progressing nicely 
through the cooperation of the 



49 



leaders and enrollees in striving 
to have this work completed by this 
time, most of the remaining work to 
be done on these projects consists 
of completing rip -rap and fencing 
of the dams with the exception of 
two which have some more earth work 
to he finished. A tree planting 
project is progressing nicely, the 
work consisting of replanting na- 
tive trees on finished projects in 
places to help prevent erosion of 
the impounding dams. This project 
was made up of savings on completed 
projects. 

Weather conditions have teen 
fair with only one bad dust storm, 
but this did not hinder the work 
in any respect. William H. Labodie . 

Picnic At Colville ( Washington ) 
Last Sunday was keenly looked for- 
ward to and was enjoyed immensely by 
practically all the members of this 
camp. It was a nice warm spring 
day. 

We were granted permission to 
use one of the trucks to convey the 
men to the Columbia Eiver at the 
mouth of the San Poil. The day was 
spent fishing, hunting Indian relics 
and taking pictures. Quite a num- 
ber of stone and some bone beads, 
and a few arrowheads were found. 
The fishermen were not so lucky, 
however, this did not dampen the 
spirits of the men, who thoroughly 
enjoyed the outing. This trip 
proved so successful that everyone 
in camp is looking forward for fur- 
ther permission to use one of the 
trucks on week-ends for similar 
trips. David W. Kayes . 

Tree Planting At Consolidated 
Ute ( Colorado ) 100 Chinese elms 
were planted this week. These 



trees are 10 to 12 feet high. Sev- 
eral lilac bushes were moved to bet- 
ter locations. One parallel fence 
was started and is largely complete. 
This fence is necessary to protect 
a row of 50 elms from horses and 
other stock. 300 holes have been 
dug for shrubs to be planted next 
week. The frequent March squalls 
have interf erred with our progress, 
but our Utes have worked well de- 
spite the inclement weather and bit- 
ing winds. This crew has been under 
the direction of Bob Brown Bird. 
Assistant Leader, Ute Indian. H. L. 
Turner , Acting Foreman . 

Numerous Activities At He He 
Mill Camp , Warm Springs ( Oregon ) 
491 trees were found over an acre- 
age of 3,330 acres to be beetle in- 
fested while the treaters treated 
431 trees over an acreage of 6,810 
acres. It has been snowing quite a 
lot during this month and at the 
present time the snow is from 2 to 
3 feet deep which makes it tough 
going for the crews. 

The wood crews have been keeping 
busy cutting wood for the camp during 
the cold spell. They are working 
about a mile from here. 

Three miles of new telephone 
line has been installed on Sidwaller 
Flat on the Simnasho -Agency project, 
while four miles of line was re- 
paired. The telephone crew was 
transferred to the Agency Camp dur- 
ing the first week of this month. 

The carpenter has been busy do- 
ing repair work on the men's cabins, 
kitchen and saw filing shed. The 
bull-dozer has been kept busy keep- 
ing the trails free from snow. Frank 
Murdock. 



50 



Truck Trail Maintenance At Ke - 
shena (Wisconsin) Since spring has 
arrived, the trails have made it 
necessary to work in the lakes area 
where the trails have dried up. 

A crew has "been brushing out 
the Hoshoquit Lake Trail and turn- 
ing the "brush. This is an impor- 
tant trail and always has "been dan- 
gerous to drive on. The curves 
have been cleared out so that one 
can see approaching cars. 

The type mapping crew has "been 
"bringing in a half section per two 
man -crew every day. Two and one- 
half townships have been mapped to 
date. Walter Ridlington . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At Mis - 
sion ( California ) Work of repair- 
ing the damage to the Saasu Truck 
Trail was carried on this week. 
One fill was washed out by water 
entering the trail on the grade a- 
bove it and coming down through a 
cut onto a fill. A side ditch is 
being opened to prevent future dam- 
age. Part of one masonry abutment 
on the first bridge was undermined. 
This is being replaced. Slides and 
gullies are being filled and re- 
paired with teams and fresnos, and 
where possible the trail is being 
dragged. The old truck trail on 
the south side of the river will 
need some maintenance work, but 
we cannot start it this week. Robt . 
W. Buck . 

Clearing Right - Of-Way At Nav- 
ajo ( New Mexico ) We have been 
brushing and clearing up the fallen 
wood for about 100 yards on each 
sit*' of the trail and 200 feet each 
a of the telephone line. We 
rded up over 200 cords of 



wood, which will be useful here at 
the base camp., John Neil . 

Fire Lane Maintenance At Choc - 
taw-Chickasaw Sanatorium ( Oklahoma ) 
Weather Conditions this week have 
been ideal for fire lane maintenance 
work and very nice progress has been 
made. If weather conditions contin- 
ue good we believe we will have our 
fire lanes in very good condition 
within the course of a short time. 
We had some rain last night and the 
wind has been blowing considerable 
today. In fact, too much wind to do 
any fire lane burning. However, 
other work on the fire lanes can be 
carried on very nicely. W. E. Van 
Cleave , M. D., Superintendent . 

Fence Work At Truxton C^.non 
( Arizona ) Most of our work this 
week has been on fence and truck 
trails. The equipment shed is near- 
ing completion which will be of 
great benefit to the mechanic and 
his helpers. Up until this time 
they have had to work on the ground 
and out in the open, which made it 
very disagreeable. It also made it 
very difficult to keep a good me- 
chanic. James L. Hendricks . 

Well Development At Potawatomi 
( Kansas ) A small crew of men have 
been working on the Iowa Reservation 
this week digging on a well. A 
small crew has been working on the 
Sac and Fox Reservation at seeding 
and sodding on the Connel D a m. A- 
bout 3,000 square yards of work was 
completed. P. Everett Sperry . 

Progress At Tulalip ( Washing - 
ton ) Good progress reported on all 
projects. Planking and backfilling 
is work being performed on Project 
17, nearing completion. T. Lozeau . 



51 







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